I think a lot of what is meant by "overhang" is inference. GPT-4 was probably trained by about 10,000 gpus, but it can run on probably about 8 gpus. If an AI can escape to other computers, then constraining training runs without constraining the broader availability of compute would imply a bigger such mismatch (although maybe this mismatch isn't very relevant because it's so big already and is growing). (The reason the mismatch is growing is increasing the size of a model by 3 costs 9 times as much (squared), but only increases inference cost by 3)

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